Accepted Manuscripts

Yanfeng Xing
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4037106
Fixture layout can affect deformation and dimensional variation of sheet metal assemblies. Conventionally, the assembly dimensions are simulated using a large number of finite element analyses, and fixture layout optimization needs significant user intervention and unaffordable iterations of finite element analyses. This paper therefore proposes a fully automated and efficient method of fixture layout optimization based on the combination of 3DCS simulation (for dimensional analyses) and global optimization algorithms. In this paper, two global algorithms are proposed to optimize fixture locator points, which are social radiation algorithm (SRA) and GAOT, a genetic algorithm in optimization toolbox in MATLAB. The flowchart of fixture design includes the following steps: (1) The locating points, the key elements of a fixture layout, are selected from a much smaller candidate pool thanks to our proposed manufacturing constraints based filtering methods and thus the computational efficiency is greatly improved. (2) The two global optimization algorithms are edited to be used to optimize fixture schemes based on MATLAB. (3) Since MATLAB macro commands of 3DCS have been developed to calculate assembly dimensions, the optimization process is fully automated. A case study of inner hood is applied to demonstrate the proposed method. The results show that the GAOT algorithm is more suitable than SRA for generating the optimal fixture layout with excellent efficiency for engineering applications.
TOPICS: Sheet metal, Design, Optimization algorithms, Optimization, Matlab, Manufacturing, Algorithms, Dimensions, Finite element analysis, Genetic algorithms, Engineering systems and industry applications, Dimensional analysis, Deformation, Filtration, Radiation (Physics), Simulation
Renwei Liu, Zhiyuang Wang and Frank Liou
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4037107
In recent years, the usage of additive manufacturing (AM) provides new capabilities for component repair, which includes low heat input, small heat-affected zone, and freeform near-net-shape fabrication. Because the geometry of each worn component is unique, the automated repair process is a challenging and important task. The focus of this paper is to investigate and develop a general best-fit and shape adaption algorithm for automating alignment and defect reconstruction for component repair. The basic principle of using features for rigid-body best-fitting is analyzed and a multi-feature-fitting method is proposed to best-fit the 3D mesh model of a worn component and its nominal component. The multi-feature-fitting algorithm in this paper couples the least square method and a density-based outlier detection method. These two methods run alternately to approach the best-fit result gradually and eliminate the disturbance caused from the defect geometry. The shape adaption algorithm is used to do cross-section comparison and defect reconstruction based on the best-fitted 3D model. A 'point-line-surface' fracture surface detection method is proposed to construct fracture surface and the fracture surface boundary is dilated to trim the nominal 3D model to obtain defect geometry. Illustrative examples with typical components and different kinds of defects are used to demonstrate the flexibility and capability of using multi-feature-fitting and shape adaption algorithm developed in this paper.
TOPICS: Maintenance, Algorithms, Fittings, Shapes, Fracture (Materials), Geometry, Fracture (Process), Heat, Three-dimensional models, Additive manufacturing, Density, Manufacturing
Technical Brief  
Chandrakant Kumar Nirala, Deepak Rajendra Unune and Harshit Kumar Sankhla
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4037108
Owing to the contaminations in the small discharge gap of micro-electro-discharge machining (µEDM), generation of non-uniform nature of discharge pulses is more significant than in macro-EDM. To address the contribution in material removal of workpiece by each of these pulses, a Pulse Discriminating (PD) system which discriminate them into contributing and non-contributing types, is generally used. Developing a PD system in µEDM is a time consuming process which requires an availability of continuously running machine. Such requirement could be eliminated if virtual signals, similar to the actual once, are made available and provided continuously to the PD system developer. An innovative idea of generating such virtual signals based on NI MULTISIM is therefore proposed and a robust PD system based on these signals is developed and validated. The strategy for discriminating the pulses in various types is developed through virtual instrumentation in NI LABVIEW. The robustness is validated in terms of its applicability over a wide range of parametric settings, acquisition length and time.
TOPICS: Machining, Signals, Virtual instrumentation, Machinery, Contamination, Electrical discharge machining, Robustness
Luis Otavio B S Alves, Rodrigo S Ruzzi, Rosemar Batista da Silva, Mark Jackson, Gilson Eduardo Tarrento, Hamilton José de Mello, Paulo Roberto de Aguiar and Eduardo Carlos Bianchi
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4037041
In general high volume of coolant are required because of large amount of heat generated in grinding. On the other hand, environmental impacts and human health problems caused by coolants have been a key issue towards sustainable manufacturing. Thus, is important to seek for strategies to reduce the volume of fluids and their risks as well as guarantee grinding efficiency. A possible solution for this problem is to use the MQL technique with an auxiliary compressed air system to clean the grinding wheel during machining. In this context, this work evaluated the performance of the MQL technique with grinding wheel cleaning in relation to the conventional cooling techniques (flood cooling) during a cylindrical plunge grinding of N2711 steel. N2711 steel is widely employed in manufacturing of molds for plastic injection processes and is one of steels more susceptible to grinding burn. The following output parameters were used to assess the performance: surface roughness, roundness, microhardness, grinding power and grinding wheel wear. The results showed that the MQL technique provided superior workpiece quality and lower power consumed compared to the flood technique. The MQL technique proved to be an alternative method compared to the conventional technique under the conditions investigated. Also, Malkin's model was used to predict the grinding ratio (G-ratio) based on experimental data obtained in this work. After regression analysis, the model predicted the G-ratio from the specific material removal rate and the cutting speed with a satisfactory accuracy of approximately 92%.
TOPICS: Steel, Grinding, Grinding wheels, Performance evaluation, Floods, Coolants, Manufacturing, Cooling, Fluids, Machining, Wear, Heat, Surface roughness, Microhardness, Sustainability, Cutting, Regression analysis, Compressed air
Min Churl Song, C. J. Van Tyne, Jin Rae Cho and Young Hoon Moon
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4037039
Tadeusz Rut (TR) forging is a widely used forging method to create heavy, solid crankshafts for marine or power-generating engines. The preform of a TR forging is forged into a crank throw by simultaneously applying both a vertical and a horizontal deformation. It is necessary to optimize the preform design, since a conventional analytical design for the preform gives various choices for the geometric variables. The purpose of the current study is to optimize the preform design in TR forging for heavy crankshafts in order to improve the dimensional accuracy of a forged shape using a limited material volume. An FE model for TR forging was developed and validated by comparing with experimental results. Parametric FE analyses were used to evaluate the effects of the geometric variables of the preform on the final dimensions of the forged product. The geometric variables of the preform were optimized by a response surface method to obtain the results of parametric FE analyses. The volume allocation between the pin and the web of the preform is the dominant factor that affects the desirability of the final forged shape. A multi-objective optimization is employed to consider the mutually exclusive changes of local machining allowances of the final forged product. Optimization using a response surface method is a useful tool to reach the large and uniform machining allowances that are required for the preform necessary for a TR forging.
TOPICS: Forging, Design, Optimization, Preforms, Response surface methodology, Shapes, Finite element analysis, Clearances (Engineering), Machining, Engines, Dimensions, Finite element model, Pareto optimization, Analytical design, Deformation
Bin Gu, Ji He, Shuhui Li, Yuan Chen and Yongfeng Li
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4037040
Springback is an important issue for the application of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in the automobile industry. Various studies have shown that it’s an effective way to predict springback by using path dependent material models. The accuracy of these material models greatly depends on the experimental test methods as well as material parameters calibrated from these tests. The present cyclic sheet metal test methods, like uniaxial tension-compression test and cyclic shear test, are non-standard and various. The material parameters calibrated from these tests vary greatly from one to another, which makes the usage of material parameters for the accurate prediction of springback more sophisticated. The focus of this work is to compare the springback prediction accuracy by using the material parameters calibrated from tension-compression test or cyclic shear test, and to further clarify the usage of those material parameters in application. These two types of non-standard cyclic tests are successfully carried out on a same test platform with different specimen geometries. One element models with corresponding tension-compression or cyclic shear boundary conditions are built respectively to calibrate the parameters of the modified YU model for these two different tests. U-bending process is performed for springback prediction comparison. The results show, the material parameters calibrated from different types of cyclic sheet metal tests can vary greatly, but it gives slight differences of springback prediction for U-bending by utilizing either tension-compression test or cyclic shear test.
TOPICS: Sheet metal, Steel sheet, Calibration, Compression, Tension, Shear (Mechanics), Automotive industry, Boundary-value problems, High strength steel
Shibin Wang, Laihao Yang, Xuefeng Chen, Chaowei Tong, Baoqing Ding and Jiawei Xiang
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036993
Vibration signal analysis has been proved as an effective tool for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for rotating machines in the manufacturing process. The presence of the rub-impact fault in rotor systems results in vibration signals with fast oscillating periodic instantaneous frequency (IF). In this paper, a novel method for rotor rub-impact fault diagnosis based on nonlinear squeezing time-frequency transform (NSquTFT) is proposed. Firstly, a dynamic model of rub-impact rotor system is investigated to quantitatively reveal the periodic oscillation behavior of the IF of vibration signals. Secondly, the theoretical analysis for the NSquTFT is conducted to prove that the NSquTFT is suitable for signals with fast varying IF, and the method for rotor rub-impact fault diagnosis based on the NSquTFT is presented. Through a dynamic simulation signal, the effectiveness of the NSquTFT in extracting the fast oscillating periodic IF is verified. The proposed method is then applied to analyze an experimental vibration signal collected from a test rig and a practical vibration signal collected from a dual-rotor turbofan engine for rotor rub-impact fault diagnosis. Comparisons are throughout conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method by using Hilbert-Huang transform, wavelet-based synchrosqueezing transform, and other methods. The application and comparison results show that the fast oscillating periodic IF of the vibration signals caused by rotor rub-impact faults can be better extracted by the proposed method.
TOPICS: Fault diagnosis, Rotors, Signals, Vibration, Condition monitoring, Theoretical analysis, Wavelets, Dynamic models, Turbofans, Oscillations, Machinery, Engines, Manufacturing, Simulation
Technical Brief  
Dong Zhang, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Leopold Juergen and Han Ding
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036994
Subsurface deformation during a cutting process has attracted a great deal of attention due to its tightly relationship with subsurface hardening, microstructure alteration, grain refinement and white layer formation. To predict the subsurface deformation of the machined components, an analytical model is proposed in this paper. The mechanical and thermal loads exerted on the primary and tertiary shear zones are predicted by a combination of Oxley’s predictive model and Fang’s slip line field. The stress field and temperature field are calculated based on contact mechanics and the moving heat sources theory, respectively. However, the elastic-plastic regime induced by the material yielding hinders the direct derivation of subsurface plastic deformation from the stress field and the work material constitutive model. To tackle this problem, a blending function of the increment of elastic strain is developed to derive the plastic strain. In addition, a sophisticated material constitutive model considering strain hardening, strain rate sensitivity, and thermal softening effects of work material is incorporated into this analytical model. To validate this model, finite element simulations of the subsurface deformation during orthogonal cutting of AISI 52100 steel are conducted. Experimental verification of the subsurface deformation is carried out through a novel subsurface deformation measurement approach based on digital image correlation technique. To demonstrate applications of the subsurface deformation prediction, the subsurface micro hardness of the machined component is experimentally tested and compared against the predicted values based on the proposed method.
TOPICS: Deformation, Modeling, Cutting, Stress, Constitutive equations, Contact mechanics, Engineering simulation, Finite element analysis, Heat, Temperature, Steel, Simulation, Hardening, Shear (Mechanics), Microhardness, Work hardening
Christian Wirtz, Sebastian Mueller, Patrick Mattfeld and Fritz Klocke
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036995
In the literature, cemented carbides are described as hard and brittle materials. The material removal mechanisms in grinding of brittle materials, such as cemented carbides, significantly differ from the material removal mechanisms of ductile materials. The material removal mechanisms in grinding of ductile materials are well investigated in comparison to the material removal mechanisms in grinding of brittle materials. In the existing literature, it has been shown that the material removal mechanisms in grinding of cemented carbides can be ductile or brittle. The present material removal mechanisms are dependent on the thermo-mechanical stress collective, which acts on the surface zone of the cemented carbides. In this paper, the material removal mechanisms in grinding of cemented carbides are discussed fundamentally. In order to analyze the occurring material removal mechanisms in grinding of cemented carbides, single grain cutting tests were carried out. Subsequent to the tests, the surface zone of the cemented carbide has been analyzed in detail. Therefore, scanning electron micrographs (SEM) have been made to analyze the workpiece surface to identify the transition from predominantly ductile to predominantly brittle material behavior. Furthermore, focused ion beam (FIB) preparation, which has minimum invasive influence on the sub surface, was applied in order to get an insight into the surface zone. The FIB lamellae have been analyzed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to get a better understanding of the impact of material removal mechanisms on the surface zone. The drawn conclusions contribute to an improved process understanding in grinding of cemented carbides.
TOPICS: Grinding, Brittleness, Electron microscopy, Stress, Cutting, Transmission electron microscopy, Thermomechanics, Focused ion beams
Peng Wang, Zhaoyan Fan, David Kazmer and Robert Gao
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036907
Multi-sensor data fusion enables more comprehensive representation of the physical process being monitored to improve manufacturing consistency and productivity. The effectiveness of data fusion, however, is dependent upon the type of the data being fused. This paper investigates orthogonality as a measure for the effectiveness of data fusion, with the goal to maximize its correlation with manufactured part quality for process control. By decomposing sensor data into a lifted-dimensional space, the contribution from each sensor to quantification of part quality is revealed by the corresponding projection vector. The performance of the method and the uncertainty involved are evaluated using experimental data from precision injection molding.
TOPICS: Sensors, Quality control, Data fusion, Uncertainty, Process control, Manufacturing, Injection molding
Review Article  
Haris Ali Khan, Jingjing Li and Chenhui Shao
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036909
This study presents detailed analyses of variant joining processes under the category of friction stir riveting (FSR) that are applied to assemble similar or dissimilar materials by integrating the advantages of both friction stir process and mechanical fastening. It covers the operating principle of FSR methods along with the insights into various process parameters responsible for successful joint formation. The paper further evaluates the researches in friction stir-based riveting processes which unearth the enhanced metallurgical and mechanical properties, for instance microstructure refinement, local mechanical properties, and improved strength, corrosion and fatigue resistance. Advantages and limitations of the FSR processes are then presented. The study is concluded by summarizing the key analyses and proposing the potential areas for future research.
TOPICS: Friction, Riveting, Mechanical properties, Corrosion, Joining, Fatigue
Zhiyong Chang, Jinan Wen, Zezhong C. Chen and Dinghua Zhang
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036834
As an important part of gas turbine engines, a blisk (or axial compressor) is complex in shape for its aerodynamic function. Specifically, the pressure and suction surfaces of the blisk blades are designed with free-form surfaces, and the space (or the channel) between two adjacent blades is curved and its width varies significantly. Thus, some blade patches can be machined with large-diameter cutters, and some patches have to be cut with small-diameter cutters. In machining, a best practice is to adopt largest obtainable cutters to cut workpieces for high machining efficiency, better part surface quality and longer tool life. However, it is quite difficult to automatically determine the largest obtainable diameters of the theoretical cutters and plan their paths for 4-axis blade machining. Conventionally, NC programming engineers often employ small-diameter cutters and plan their paths to cut the blades layer by layer in 4-axis milling. Unfortunately, this machining efficiency is low and the cutters wear out quickly. In this research, a new process of rough-machining blisks with multiple largest obtainable tools cutting in patch-by-patch strategy is proposed. Theoretically, an optimization model of the largest allowable diameter of the theoretical cutter at a cutter contact point is established, and an efficient and reliable solver is proposed. Since the cutters are used as large as possible, the machining parameters can be greater and the tool path length is shorter. Therefore, this new process is more efficient than the current method of blisk machining.
TOPICS: Machining, Surface roughness, Cutting, Blades, Milling, Shapes, Computer programming, Surface quality, Gas turbines, Optimization, Pressure, Wear, Suction, Engineers, Compressors
Jeffrey A. Abell, Debejyo Chakraborty, Carlos A. Escobar, Kee H. Im, Diana M. Wegner and Mike Wincek
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036833
Discussion of big data has been about data, software, and methods with an emphasis on retail and personalization of services and products. Big data also has impacted engineering and manufacturing and has resulted in better and more ef?cient manufacturing operations, improved quality, and more personalized products. A less apparent effect is that big data has changed problem solving: the problems we choose to solve, the strategy we seek, and the tools we em- ploy. This article illustrates this point by showing how the big data style of thinking enabled the development of a new quality assurance philosophy called process monitoring for quality. A blend of process monitoring and quality control, that is founded on big data and big models; catalysts for the next step in the evolution of the quality movement. Process monitoring for quality was used to evaluate the performance of the ultrasonically welded battery tabs in the new Chevrolet Volt, an extended range electric vehicle.
TOPICS: Manufacturing, Process monitoring, Quality control, Batteries, Catalysts, Computer software, Electric vehicles
Zhou-Long Li and Li-Min Zhu
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036783
Cutter runout is universal and inevitable in milling process and has a direct impact on the shape of the in-process geometry. However, most of the works on the cutter-workpiece engagement (CWE) extraction neglect the cutter runout impact, which will result in a loss of precision. In this paper, an accurate method is presented to obtain CWE boundaries in five-axis milling with a general tool integrating the cutter runout impact. First, each flute’s rotary surface is analytically derived. Then, by intersecting the section circle corresponding to the current flute with each of the rotary surface formed by previous flutes, a set of candidate feasible contact arcs (CFCAs) are obtained, and the valid feasible contact arc (VFCA) is defined as the common intersection of these CFCAs. Next, by intersecting the VFCA with the workpiece surfaces, the partial arc which locates inside the workpiece volume is extracted as the engagement arc. Finally, the CWE map is plotted by mapping a set of engagement arcs to a 2D space. To validate the proposed method, the CWE maps with/without integrating the cutter runout impact in five-axis milling of an axial compressor blisk are extracted and compared. The results reveal that the shape of CWE boundaries is changed a lot owing to the cutter runout impact. A cutting force comparison experiment has been carried out to show that the proposed method will lead to higher prediction accuracy especially in the finish milling process with low immersion angle.
TOPICS: Milling, Shapes, Compressors, Finishes, Cutting, Geometry
Emad Mazhari and Sayed A. Nassar
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036786
In this study, the Fickian diffusion formulation is extended to the adhesive layer of a single lap joint model, in order to develop a coupled peel and shear stress-diffusion model. Constitutive equations are formulated for shear and peel stresses in terms of adhesive material properties that are time and location-dependent. Numerical solution is provided for the effect of diffusion on shear and peel stresses distribution. Detailed discussion of the results is presented. Keywords: adhesive bonding, constitutive modeling, moisture diffusion, peel stress
TOPICS: Stress, Shear (Mechanics), Diffusion (Physics), Adhesives, Bonding, Materials properties, Constitutive equations, Modeling
Junheung Park and Kyoung-Yun Kim
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036787
In resistance spot welding (RSW), data inconsistency is a well-known issue. Such inconsistent data are usually treated as noise and removed from the original dataset before conducting analyses or constructing prediction models. This may not be desirable for all design and manufacturing applications since data that is often considered noise can contain important information in determining weldment design, and proper welding conditions. In this paper, we present the Meta2 prediction framework to provide cost-effective opportunities for proper welding material and condition selection from the noisy RSW quality data. The Meta2 framework employs bootstrap aggregating with support vector regression (SVR) to improve the prediction accuracy on the noisy RSW data with computational efficiency. Hyper-parameters for SVR are selected by particle swarm optimization with meta-modeling to reduce the computational cost. Experiments on three artificially generated noisy datasets and a real RSW dataset indicate that Meta2 is capable of providing satisfactory solutions with a noticeably reduced computational cost. The authors find Meta2 promising as a potential prediction model algorithm for this type of noisy data.
TOPICS: Welding, Modeling, Design, Noise (Sound), Algorithms, Manufacturing, Particle swarm optimization, Support vector machines
Kyle Christensen and Yong Huang
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036785
Additive manufacturing, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is an approach in which a structure may be fabricated layer by layer. For 3D inkjet printing, droplets are ejected from a nozzle and each layer is formed droplet by droplet. Inkjet printing has been widely applied for the fabrication of 3D biological gel structures, but the knowledge of the microscale interactions between printed droplets is still largely elusive. This study aims to elucidate the layer formation mechanism in terms of the formation of single lines and layers comprised of adjacent lines during drop-on-demand inkjet printing of alginate using high speed imaging and particle image velocimetry. Inkjet droplets are found to impact, spread, and coalesce within a fluid region at the deposition site, forming coherent printed lines within a layer. The effects of printing conditions on the behavior of droplets during layer formation are discussed and modeled based on gelation dynamics, and recommendations are presented to enable controllable and reliable fabrication of gel structures. The effects of gelation on droplet impact dynamics are found to be negligible during alginate printing, and interfaces are found to form between printed lines within a layer depending on printing conditions, printing path orientation, and gelation dynamics.
TOPICS: Drops, Additive manufacturing, Printing, Dynamics (Mechanics), Manufacturing, Imaging, Fluids, Particulate matter, Microscale devices, Nozzles
Review Article  
Brandt Ruszkiewicz, Tyler Grimm, Ihab Ragai, Laine Mears and John T. Roth
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036716
Increasingly strict fuel efficiency standards have driven the aerospace and automotive industries to improve the fuel economy of their fleets. A key method for feasibly improving the fuel economy is by decreasing the weight, which requires the introduction of materials with high strength to weight ratios into airplane and vehicle designs. Many of these materials are not as formable or machinable as conventional low carbon steels, making production difficult when using traditional forming and machining strategies and capital. Electrical augmentation offers a potential solution to this dilemma through enhancing process capabilities, and allowing for continued use of existing equipment. The use of electricity to aid in deformation of metallic materials is termed Electrically-Assisted Manufacturing. The direct effect of electricity on the deformation of metallic materials is termed the electroplastic effect. This paper presents a summary of the current state of the art in using electric current to augment existing manufacturing processes for processing of higher-strength materials. Advantages of this process include: flow stress and forming force reduction, increased formability, decreased elastic recovery, fracture mode transformation from brittle to ductile, decreased overall process energy, and decreased cutting forces in machining. There is currently a lack of agreement as to the underlying mechanisms of the electroplastic effect. Therefore, this paper presents the four main existing theories and the experimental understanding of these theories, along with modeling approaches for understanding and predicting the electroplastic effect.
TOPICS: Manufacturing, Modeling, Fuel efficiency, Machining, Weight (Mass), Deformation, Electric current, Flow (Dynamics), Brittleness, Carbon steel, Stress, Fracture (Materials), Aerospace industry, Fracture (Process), Automotive design, Aircraft, Cutting
W. Brian Rowe
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036638
Many scientists have contributed to the analysis of temperatures in grinding leading up to present day understanding. This paper draws together important developments from various papers and aims to identify an improved general approach to thermal analysis with wide applicability including conventional fine grinding, creep feed grinding and high efficiency deep grinding. Complexity is avoided since the resulting temperature model is based purely on heat balance. Challenges for thermal analysis are indicated. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals for improved accuracy and for convenience of application in process control.
TOPICS: Temperature, Grinding, Thermal analysis, Process control, Creep, Heat
David Dakdouk and Fengfeng Xi
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4036639
Robotic applications in aerospace manufacturing and aircraft assembly today are limited. This is because most of the aircraft parts are relatively crowded and have complex shapes that make tasks like robotic drilling and fastening more challenging. These challenges include tool accessibility, path and motion planning. In this paper, a process methodology was developed to overcome the tool accessibility challenges facing robotic drilling and riveting for aircraft parts that are located in crowded work environments. First, the tool accessibility was analyzed based on the Global Accessibility Area and the Global Accessibility Volume to determine the accessible boundaries for parts with zero, one and two surfaces curvatures. Then the path for the tool was generated while taking in consideration the approachability planning. This approach generates a number of intermediate points that enable the tool to manoeuvre around obstacles to reach the final target points if they are accessible. Last, a software application was developed to simulate the drilling and riveting tasks, and to validate the proposed process. The results of the simulation confirmed the proposed methodology and provided a numerical feedback describing the level of crowdedness of the work environment. The accessibility percentage can then be used by the design team to reduce the design complexity and increase the level of tool accessibility.
TOPICS: Drilling, Robotics, Aircraft, Manufacturing, Design, Riveting, Shapes, Teams, Simulation, Aerospace industry, Computer software, Feedback, Path planning

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