Accepted Manuscripts

Weizhao Zhang, Xuan Ma, Jie Lu, Zixuan Zhang, Qian Jane Wang, Xuming Su, Danielle Zeng, Mansour Mirdamadi and Jian Cao
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039979
Carbon fiber reinforced composites have received growing attentions because of their superior performance and high potential for lightweight systems. An economic method to manufacture the parts made of these composites is a sequence of forming followed by a compression molding. The first step in this sequence is called preforming that forms the prepreg, which is the fabric impregnated with the uncured resin, to the product geometry, while the molding process cures the resin. Slip between different prepreg layers is observed in the preforming step, and it is believed to have a nonnegligible impact on the resulting geometry. This paper reports a method to characterize the interaction between different prepreg layers, which should be valuable for future predictive modeling and design optimization. An experimental device was built to evaluate the interactions with respect to various industrial production conditions. The experimental results were analyzed for an in-depth understanding about how temperature, relative sliding speed, and fiber orientation affect the tangential interaction between two prepreg layers. Moreover, a hydro-lubricant model was introduced to study the relative motion mechanism of this fabric-resin-fabric system, and the results agreed well with the experiment data. The interaction factors obtained from this research will be implemented in a preforming process finite element simulation model.
TOPICS: Composite materials, Computer simulation, Carbon fibers, Experimental characterization, Resins, Textiles, Geometry, Temperature, Simulation models, Fibers, Lubricants, Molding, Design, Finite element analysis, Modeling, Optimization, Compression molding
Technical Brief  
Erardo Leal-Muñoz, Eduardo Diez, Hilde Perez and Antonio Vizan
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039917
The evolution of the manufacturing industry has favoured the use of new technologies that increase the level of autonomy in production systems. The work presented shows a methodology that allows for online estimation of cutting parameters based on the analysis of the cutting force signal pattern. The dynamic response of the tool is taken into account through a function that relates the response time to the input variables in the process. The force signal is obtained with a dynamometric platform based on piezoelectric sensors. The final section of the paper shows the experimental validation where machining tests with variable machining conditions were carried out. The results reveal high precision in the estimation of depths of cut in end milling.
TOPICS: Finishing, Milling, Signals, Machining, Cutting, Dynamic response, Manufacturing industry, Manufacturing systems, Sensors
Tao Zhang, Feng Jiang, Lan Yan and Xipeng Xu
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039916
A method of research on the size effect of the specific cutting energy based on the numerical simulation has been proposed. The theoretical model of the research on size effect of specific cutting energy using single grit scratch simulation has been presented. A series of single grit scratch simulations with different scratch depths have been carried out to acquire different material removal rates. Then the specific cutting energy was calculated based on the power consumed by scratch process and the material removal rate. The relationship between the specific cutting energy and the material removal rate has been given which agrees well with that presented by Malkin. The simulation results have been analyzed further to explain the relationship between specific cutting energy and material removal rate.
TOPICS: Computer simulation, Cutting, Size effect, Simulation, Simulation results
Jinting Xu, Yukun Ji, Yuwen Sun and Yuan-Shin Lee
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039918
Spiral tool paths are preferable for CNC milling, especially for high-speed machining. At present, most spiral tool path generation methods aim mainly for pocketing and a few methods for machining complex surface also suffer from some inherent problems, such as selection of projecting direction, preprocessing of complex offset contours, easily affected by the mesh or mesh deformation. To address these limitations, a new spiral tool path method is proposed, in which the radial curves play a key role as the guiding curves for spiral tool path generation. The radial curve is defined as one on the mesh surface that connects smoothly one point on the mesh surface and its boundary. To reduce the complexity of constructing the radial curves directly on the mesh surface, the mesh surface is first mapped into a circular region. In this region, the radial lines, starting from the center, are planned and then mapped inversely onto the mesh surface, forming the desired radial curves. By traversing these radial curves using the proposed linear interpolation method, a polyline spiral is generated and then the unfavorable overcuts and undercuts are identified and eliminated by supplementing additional spiral points. Spline based technique of rounding the corners is also discussed to smooth the polyline spiral, obtaining a smooth continuous spiral tool path. This method not only can greatly simply the construction of radial curves and spiral tool path, but also has the ability of processing complex surfaces. Experimental results are presented to validate the proposed method.
TOPICS: Deformation, Machining, Construction, Splines, Corners (Structural elements), Interpolation, Milling, Computer numerical control machine tools
Qingqing Wang and Zhanqiang Liu
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039889
Exploring the hardening mechanisms during high speed machining (HSM) is an effective approach to improve the fatigue strength and the wear resistance of machined surface and to control the fragmentation of chips in a certain range of hardness. In this paper, the microhardness variation is explored from the perspective of microstructural evolutions, as a direct consequence of the severe deformation during HSM Ti-6Al-4V alloy. A microstructure-sensitive flow stress model coupled the phenomena of grain refinement, deformation twinning and phase transformations is firstly proposed. Then the microstructure-sensitive flow stress model is implemented into the cutting simulation model via a user defined subroutine to analyze the flow stress variation induced by the microstructure evolutions during HSM Ti-6Al-4V. Finally, the relationship between the microhardness and flow stress is developed and modified based on the classical theory that the hardness is directly proportional to the flow stress. The study shows that the deformation twinning (generated at higher cutting speeds) plays a more important role in the hardening of Ti-6Al-4V compared with the grain refinement and phase transformation. The predicted microhardness distributions align well with the measured values. It provides a novel thinking that it is plausible to obtain a high microhardness material via controlling the microstructure alterations during machining process.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Stress, High speed machining, Microhardness, Deformation, Phase transitions, Cutting, Hardening, Twinning, Wear resistance, Simulation models, Fatigue strength, Machining, Alloys
Pavan Kumar Srivas, Kausik Kapat, Meher Wan and Santanu Dhara
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039888
Titanium and its alloys are widely used in structural applications owing to superior mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. In the present study, a simple powder metallurgy based process is developed to fabricate dense components through formation of dough under ambient condition using Ti6Al4V powder along with chitosan powder as dough forming additive and acetic acid as solvent. The prepared samples had ~ 66% ± 1.7% green density and 97.3% ± 2.1% sintered density of the theoretical value. The microstructure of Ti6Al4V was investigated using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Micro-CT analysis was carried out for distribution of defects and their influence on flexural strength and micro-hardness was assessed as well. The prepared green samples had uniform particle distribution that resulted in minimum deformation after sintering. Assessment of mechanical properties revealed that the values of hardness and flexural modulus for sintered samples were comparable to the reported values of Ti6Al4V components prepared using other process. Therefore, the developed method of dough forming for dense titanium components using powder metallurgy route is a simple and viable alternative.
TOPICS: Extruding, Rheology, Mechanical properties, Titanium, Powder metallurgy, Density, Deformation, Alloys, Particulate matter, Sintering, X-ray spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Bending strength, Corrosion resistance, Microhardness
Sisi Li, Yongbo Wu, Mitsuyoshi Nomura and Tatsuya Fujii
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039855
The Ti-6Al-4V is a widely used alloy in the aerospace industry. In order to improve the grindability of Ti-6Al-4V, a hybrid material removal process is proposed in this study. This process is a combination of ultrasonic assisted grinding (UAG) and electrochemical grinding (ECG); hereafter called ultrasonic assisted electrochemical grinding (UAECG). For confirming the feasibility of the proposed technique, an experimental setup was constructed and the fundamental machining characteristics of UAECG in the grinding of Ti-6Al-4V were experimentally investigated. The results obtained from the investigation can be summarized as follows: (1) The normal and tangential grinding forces in UAECG were smaller than those in conventional grinding (CG) by 57% and 56%, respectively; (2) The work-surface roughness Ra both in ECG and UAECG decreased with the increasing electrolytic voltage, UI, and the surface damage such as plastic deformation and cracks which often occur in CG were not observed in UAECG; (3) The wheel radius wear in UAECG was considerably smaller than that in ECG when UI < 10 V. The wheel wear in CG was predominantly attributed to the grain drop out, whereas in ECG and UAECG the working lives of the wheels were predominantly affected by the chip adhesion and the grain fracture; (4) A 78 nm thick titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer was generated on the work-surface at UI = 20 V, and thus the Vickers micro-hardness of work-surface in ultrasonic assisted electrochemical was lower than that in original by 15%.
TOPICS: Machining, Grinding, User interfaces, Wheels, Fracture (Materials), Wear, Adhesion, Alloys, Surface roughness, Aerospace industry, Microhardness, Titanium, Damage, Deformation
Xiao-Jin Wan and Hanjie Zhang
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039856
In this paper, a novel fixture mechanism with combining a mobility of the legged robot and advantages of parallel mechanism is designed to hold the different size and shape, large-scale workpiece. The proposed mobile fixture mechanism holds the workpiece as a parallel manipulator. While it walks as a legged robot. This kind of robotized fixtures can possess high self-configurable ability to accommodate a wider variety of products. In order to obtain the best kinematic dexterity and accuracy characteristics, comprehensive performance optimization is performed by non-dominated-genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). In the optimization procedure, a conventional kinematic transformation matrix (Jacobian matrix) and error propagation matrix are obtained through derivation and differential motion operations. The singular values and condition number based on velocity Jacobians and error amplification factors based on error propagation matrix are derived, in addition, relative pose error range of end-effector (EE) are also derived. On the basis of the above measure indices, three kinds of nonlinear optimization problems are defined to obtain the optimal architecture parameters for better kinematic accuracy and dexterity in workspace. Comparison analyses of the Optimized results are performed.
TOPICS: Design, Optimization, Errors, Kinematics, Robots, Algorithms, End effectors, Jacobian matrices, Manipulators, Shapes, Parallel mechanisms, Mechanical admittance
Abolfazl Rezaei Aderiani, Kristina Wärmefjord and Rikard Söderberg
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039767
Selective assembly is a means of obtaining higher quality product assemblies by using relatively low-quality components. Components are selected and classified according to their dimensions and then assembled. Past research has often focused on components that have normal dimensional distributions to try to find assemblies with minimal variation and surplus parts. This paper presents a multistage approach to selective assembly for all distributions of components and with no surplus, thus offering less variation compared to similar approaches. The problem is divided into different stages and a genetic algorithm is used to find the best combination of groups of parts in each stage. This approach is applied to two available cases from the literature. The results show improvement of up to 20 percent in variation compared to past approaches.
TOPICS: Manufacturing, Genetic algorithms, Dimensions
Technical Brief  
Harry A. Pierson and Bharat Chivukula
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039766
Recent advances in fused filament fabrication (FFF), such as 5-axis printing, patching existing parts, and certain hybrid manufacturing processes, involve printing atop a previously manufactured polymer substrate. The success of these technologies depends upon the bond strength between the substrate and the newly added geometry. ANOVA and response surface methods were used to determine the effect of three process parameters on bond tensile strength: surface roughness, layer thickness, and raster angle. Experimental results indicate that the process-property relationships are not identical to those found in single, continuous FFF operations, and that the physical bonding mechanisms may also be different. Bond strength was found to be highly sensitive to surface roughness and layer thickness, and distinct optimal parameter settings exist. These results represent a first step toward understanding bond strength in such circumstances, allowing manufacturers to intelligently select process parameters for the production of both the substrate and the secondary geometry.
TOPICS: Manufacturing, Polymers, Bond strength, Surface roughness, Geometry, Printing, Response surface methodology, Tensile strength, Bonding
Shuoxue Sun, Yuwen Sun, Jinting Xu and Yuan-Shin Lee
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039653
This paper presents a new vector field based streamline smoothing method in the parametric space and a tool orientation optimization technique for 5-axis machining of complex compound surfaces with torus-end cutters. Iso-planar tool path is widely used in the machining of various types of surfaces, especially for the compound surface with multiple patches, but the operations of intersecting the compound surface with a series of planes have depended considerably on the complicated optimization methods. Instead of intersecting the surface directly with the planes, a novel and effective tool path smoothing method is presented, based on the iso-planar feed vector fields, for the 5-axis milling of a compound surface with torus-end cutters. The iso-planar feed vector field in the parametric domain is first constructed in form of stream function that is used to generate the candidate streamlines for tool path generation. Then a G1 blending algorithm is proposed to blend the vector fields within the adjacent parametric domains to ensure smooth transition of the cross-border streamlines. Based on the smoothened streamlines in the parametric domains, pathlines along with their correspondent side sizes are selected as the desirable tool paths. Concerning a high performance machining, detailed computational techniques to determine the tool axis orientation are also presented to ensure, at each cutter contact (CC) point, the torus-end cutter touches the part surface closely without gouging. Both the computational results and laboratory machined examples are demonstrated for verification and validation of the proposed methods.
TOPICS: Machining, Optimization, Smoothing methods, Touch (physiological), Milling, Algorithms
Sheng Xu, Zhenqiang Yao, Jiawei He and Jian Xu
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039645
Zirconia ceramics which is called 'ceramic steel' has gained significant importance because of their excellent properties. It is desired to maintain the surface quality while increasing the economics of ceramics grinding process. A hybrid laser/grinding process was utilized to grind zirconia ceramics which was irradiated with continuous wave laser before machining in the process. The feasibility of hybrid laser/grinding of zirconia ceramics was investigated in terms of grinding force and energy, material removal and damage formation mechanisms. The results show that laser irradiation can induce lateral cracks, which can help material removal and prevent further crack propagating into the specimen. The results of grinding tests indicate that grinding force and energy decrease significantly while the grinding force ratio increase as compared with conventional ceramics grinding. The combination of the fractured area, the ploughing striations and seldom debris on the ground surfaces symbolizes the combined material removal mechanism of both brittle mode and ductile mode.
TOPICS: Lasers, Ceramics, Grinding, Damage, Fracture (Materials), Economics , Surface quality, Waves, Brittleness, Irradiation (Radiation exposure), Machining, Steel
Takahiro Kunimine, Hideaki Tsuge, Daisuke Ogawa, Motoko Yamada, Hisashi Sato and Yoshimi Watanabe
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039650
This study aims to investigate the drilling performance of a copper/diamond functionally graded grinding wheel fabricated by centrifugal sintered-casting for carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates by originally designed gyro-driving grinding wheel system. The copper/diamond functionally graded grinding wheel was also originally designed and fabricated by centrifugal sintered-casting to reduce the consumption of abrasive grains in our previous study. Drilling tests were carried out over 50 holes in dry machining. Thrust force was evaluated with force sensor during drilling test. Hole diameter, roundness and roughness were measured to evaluate hole quality. Drill chips were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate chip morphology. Precision drilling without burring and delamination were achieved in CFRP laminates. Good hole-quality was still obtained at 50 holes due to the low thrust force during drilling. Specific three-dimensional drilling process of the gyro-driving grinding wheel system enabled continuous drilling with low thrust force in CFRP laminates.
TOPICS: Copper, Laminates, Drilling, Diamonds, Grinding wheels, Carbon reinforced plastics, Thrust, Hole quality, Casting, Scanning electron microscopes, Machining, Surface roughness, Drills (Tools), Carbon, Fiber reinforced plastics, Force sensors, Delamination
Lawrence Funke and James Schmiedeler
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039652
Parts made via polymer extrusion are currently limited to a constant cross section. Additionally, the process is difficult to control, so desired final part dimensions are often achieved via a manual trial-and-error approach to parameter adjustment. This work seeks to increase the capability of polymer extrusion by using iterative learning control (ILC) to regulate the final width of a rectangular part through changing the width of a simple variable-geometry die. Simulation results determine the appropriateness of the learning algorithm and gains to be used in experiment. A prototype die on a production extruder was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. These experiments achieved automated control over both gross change in shape and final part dimension when the puller speed was held constant, which has not been seen previously in the literature.
TOPICS: Dimensions, Extruding, Polymers, Geometry, Iterative learning control, Shapes, Simulation results, Errors, Engineering prototypes, Algorithms
Brandt Ruszkiewicz, Elizabeth Gendreau, Farbod Akhavan Niaki and Laine Mears
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039648
When post-forming machining operations are required on high strength structural components tool life becomes a costly issue, often requiring external softening via techniques such as laser assistance for press-hardened steel components. Electrically Assisted Manufacturing uses electricity during material removal processes to reduce cutting loads through thermal softening. This paper evaluates the effect of electric current on a drilling process, termed electroplastic drilling, through the metrics of axial force, and workpiece temperature when machining mild low carbon steel (1008CR steel) and an advanced high strength press hardened steel. A design of experiment is conducted on 1008CR steel to determine primary process parameter effects; it is found that electricity can reduce cutting loads at the cost of an increased workpiece temperature. The knowledge generated from the design of experiment is applied to the advanced high strength steel to evaluate cutting force reduction, process time savings, and tool life improvement at elevated feedrates. It is found that force can be reduced by 50% in high feedrates without observing catastrophic tool failure for up to 10 cuts, while tool failure occurs in only a single cut for the no-current condition. Finally, the limitations of the developed model in electroplastic drilling are discussed along with future suggestions for industrialization of the method.
TOPICS: Drilling, High strength steel, Steel, Cutting, Failure, Machining, Temperature, Stress, Design, Structural elements (Construction), Carbon steel, Electric current, Lasers, Manufacturing, Martensitic steel
Kamlesh Joshi, Upendra Bhandarkar, Indradev Samajdar and Suhas S. Joshi
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039647
Slicing of Si wafers through abrasive processes generates various surface defects on wafers such as cracks and surface contaminations. Also, the processes cause a significant material-loss during slicing and subsequent polishing. Recently, efforts are being made to slice very thin wafers, and at the same time understand the thermal and micro-structural damage caused due to sparking during wire-EDM. Wire-EDM has shown potential for slicing ultra-thin Si wafers of thickness < 200 µm. This work therefore, presents an extensive experimental work on characterization of the thermal damage due to sparking during wire-EDM on ultra-thin wafers. The experiments were performed using RSM-based Central Composite Design (CCD). The damage was mainly characterized by SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. The average thickness of thermal damage on the wafers was observed to be ~16 µm. The damage was highly influenced by exposure time of wafer surface with EDM plasma spark. Also, with an increase in diameter of plasma spark, the surface roughness was found to increase. TEM micrographs have confirmed the formation of amorphous Si along with a region of fine grained Si entrapped inside the amorphous matrix. However, there were no signs of other defects like micro-cracks, twin boundaries or fracture on the surfaces. Micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed that in order to slice a wafer with minimum residual stresses and very low presence of amorphous phases, it should be sliced at the lowest value of pulse on-time and at the highest value of open voltage.
TOPICS: Wire, Semiconductor wafers, Electrical discharge machining, Damage, Fracture (Materials), Plasmas (Ionized gases), Contamination, Surface roughness, Polishing, Residual stresses, Composite materials, Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Design, Microcracks
Chetan P Nikhare
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039587
From centuries the metals and materials has been characterized using a traditional method called uniaxial tension test. The data acquired from this test found adequate for operations of simple forming where one axis stretching is dominant. Currently due to the demand of lightweight component production, multiple individual parts are eliminated by stamping in a single complex shape which further reduces many secondary operation. This need is driven by the requirement of 55.8 miles per gallon by 2025. Due to the complex part geometry, the forming method induces multi-axial stress states, which found difficult to predict using conventional tools. Thus to analyze these multi-axial stress states limiting dome height test and bulge test were recommended in many research. However, these tests limit the possibilities of applying multi-axial loading and resulting stress patterns due to contact surfaces. Thus a test machine called biaxial test is devised which would provide the capability to test the specimen in multi-axial stress states with varying load. In this paper, two processes, limiting dome test and biaxial test were experimented, modeled and compared. For this, the cruciform test specimens were used in biaxial test and conventional forming limit specimens for dome test. Variation of loadings were provided multi-axially in both test to capture the limit strain from uniaxial to equi-biaxial strain mode. In addition, the strain path, forming and formability was investigated and difference between the tests were provided.
TOPICS: Domes (Structural elements), Forming limit diagrams, Stress, Geometry, Metal stamping, Shapes, Tension, Metals, Machinery
Technical Brief  
Arshpreet Singh and Anupam Agrawal
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039586
Deformation machining (DM) is a combination of thin structure machining and single point incremental forming/bending. This process enables the creation of complex structures and geometries, which are probably difficult or sometimes impossible to manufacture employing conventional manufacturing techniques.Geometrical discrepancies in thin structure or sheet metal bending and forming are a major obstacle in manufacturing quality components. These discrepancies are more prevalent and complex in nature in incremental or generative manufacturing. In the present work, a comprehensive experimental and numerical study on the parametric effects on various geometrical inaccuracies in deformation machining process has been performed.This study would help in giving an insight in providing necessary geometrical compensation, ensuring a quality product over a wide range of process parameters.
TOPICS: Deformation, Machining, Manufacturing, Sheet metal
Zheng Kang, Benxin Wu, Ruoxing Wang and Wenzhuo Wu
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039492
Flexible electronic devices involve electronic circuits fabricated onto a flexible (e.g., polymer) substrate, and they have many important applications. However, during their use, they often need to go through repeated deformations (such as bending). This may generate cracks in metallic components that often exist in a flexible electronic device, and could obviously affect the device durability and reliability. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a potential to enhance the metal fatigue properties. However, previous work on the fabrication of CNT-metal composites onto a flexible substrate has been limited. This paper reports the research work on a novel laser-based approach to fabricate CNT-metal composites onto a flexible substrate, where mixtures containing CNTs and metal (silver) nanoparticles are deposited onto the substrate through a dispensing device and then laser-sintered into CNT-metal composites. Under the studied conditions and for the tested samples it has been found that overall the addition of CNTs has significantly enhanced the bending fatigue properties of the laser-sintered material without degrading the material electrical conductivity (which has actually been slightly increased). The laser-based approach has several potential advantages, such as the local, precise and flexible production of CNT-metal composite patterns with small or little thermal effects to the flexible substrate and other surrounding regions, and without using a mask or vacuum. Future work is certainly still needed on this novel fabrication process.
TOPICS: Fatigue, Silver, Lasers, Composite materials, Manufacturing, Carbon nanotubes, Metals, Flexible electronics, Fatigue properties, Electronic circuits, Reliability, Temperature effects, Fracture (Materials), Nanoparticles, Durability, Polymers, Vacuum, Metal fatigue, Electrical conductivity, Deformation
Gianfranco Palumbo, Donato Sorgente, Maurizio Vedani, Ehsan Mostaed, Milad Hamidi Nasab, Dario Gastaldi and Tomaso Villa
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039110
In the present work, both the surface chemical contamination and the mechanical alteration of Titanium Grade 5 and Grade 23 plates subjected to superplastic forming for the manufacturing of highly customized biomedical prostheses have been investigated. As case study, a cranial implant was considered. Free Inflation tests were conducted in order to determine the material behavior to be implemented in the numerical model used for simulating the implant manufacturing by superplastic forming. Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry analyses, nano-indentation tests and metallographic analyses allowed to relate the mechanical alteration to the Oxygen enrichment due to the environmental exposition during processing. Finally, real implants were produced and Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on the most oxidized part in order to determine the effect of the oxygen enrichment on the cells viability.
TOPICS: Titanium alloys, Superplastic forming, Surface properties, Biomedicine, Oxygen, Manufacturing, Computer simulation, Nanoindentation, Emission spectroscopy, Contamination, Glow discharge, Plates (structures), Prostheses, Titanium

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