Accepted Manuscripts

Fei Tao, Luning Bi, Ying Zuo and A Y C Nee
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035960
Process planning can be an effective way to improve the energy efficiency of production processes. Aimed at reducing both energy consumption and processing time, a comprehensive approach which considers feature sequencing, process selection and physical resources allocation simultaneously, is established in this paper. As the number of decision variables increase, process planning becomes a large-scale problem, and it is difficult to be addressed by simply employing a regular meta-heuristic algorithm. A cooperative co-evolutionary algorithm, which hybridizes the artificial bee colony algorithm (ABCA) and Tabu search (TS), is therefore proposed. In addition, in the proposed algorithm, a novel representation method is designed to generate feasible process plans under complex precedence. Compared with some widely-used algorithms, the proposed algorithm is proven to have a good performance for handling large-scale process planning in terms of maximizing energy efficiency and production times.
yi-pei Shih and Can-Xun Zhang
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035961
Although face milling is a popular industrial cutting method for mass-producing bevel gears, current machines require many cutters with diverse profile angles to produce different gear types. In this paper, therefore, a flexible cutting method is proposed that eliminated the need of too many cutters for producing the gears with similar size and module by employing cutters with standard profile angle blades on a general five-axis machine. The settings for this machine are derived by mathematically modeling a virtual machine, after which the motion functions of the five-axis coordinates are determined through inverse kinematics. A sensitivity analysis is then performed to bring the tooth surface produced closer to its theoretical counterpart. The results of a cutting simulation confirm the correctness of this proposed method.
Tangbin Xia, Lifeng Xi, Ershun Pan, Nagi Gebraeel and Xiaolei Fang
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035962
With many industries increasingly relying on leased equipment and machinery, many original equipment manufacturers are turning to product-service packages where they deliver (typically lease) the physical assets. An integrated service contract will be offered for the asset. A classic example being Rolls Royce power-by-the-hour aircraft engines. Service contracts offered by original equipment manufacturers have predominantly focused on maintenance and upkeep activities for a single asset. Interestingly enough, manufacturing industries are beginning to adopt the product-service paradigm. However, one of the unique aspects in manufacturing settings is that the leased system is often not a single asset but instead a multi-unit system (e.g. an entire production line). In this paper, we develop a lease-oriented maintenance methodology for multi-unit leased systems under product-service paradigm. Unlike traditional maintenance models, we propose a leasing profit optimization policy to adaptively compute optimal preventive maintenance schedules that capture following dynamics: (1) the structural dependencies of the multi-unit system, (2) opportunistic maintenance of multiple system components, and (3) leasing profit savings. We demonstrate the performance of our multi-unit maintenance policy by using a leased automotive manufacturing line, and investigate its impact on leasing profits.
Prashanth Ravi, Panos S. Shiakolas and Avinash Dnyaneshwar Thorat
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035963
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is currently one of the most widely utilized prototyping technologies. Studies employing statistical techniques have been conducted to develop empirical relationships between FDM process factors and output variables such as dimensional accuracy, surface roughness and mechanical properties of the fabricated structures. However, the effects of nozzle Temperature (T), Nozzle-Bed Distance (NBD), and their interactions on Strut Width (SW) have not been investigated. In the present work, a two-way factorial study with 3 levels of T and NBD in triplicates was undertaken. A fixed-effects model with interaction was proposed and remedial measures based on error analysis were performed to obtain correct inferences. The factor main/interaction effects were all found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Multiple comparisons were conducted between treatment means using the Tukey’s method. A Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model (R2 = 0.95) was subsequently developed to enable prediction of SW. The developed MLR model was verified experimentally; by 1) the fabrication of individual struts and 2) the fabrication of single-layer scaffolds with parallel raster patterns. The % error between the predicted and observed widths of individually fabricated struts was 3.2%, and the error between predicted and observed SW/spacing for the single-layer scaffolds was =5.5%. Results indicate that a similar statistical methodology could be potentially employed to identify levels of T and NBD that yield defined width struts using open architecture, personal or commercial FDM setups and existing/new materials.
TOPICS: Manufacturing, Temperature effects, Nozzles, Errors, Temperature, Error analysis, Mechanical properties, Modeling, Surface roughness, Struts (Engineering)
Lu Lu, Ping Guo and Yayue Pan
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035964
In this paper, an additive manufacturing process, Magnetic Field-assisted Projection Stereolithography (M-PSL), is developed for 3D printing of three-dimensional (3D) smart polymer composites. The 3D printed magnetic field-responsive smart polymer composite creates a wide range of motions, opening up possibilities for various new applications, like sensing and actuation in soft robotics, biomedical devices, and autonomous systems. In the proposed M-PSL process, a certain amount of nano- or micro-sized ferromagnetic particles is deposited in liquid polymer by using a programmable micro-deposition nozzle. An external magnetic field is applied to direct the magnetic particles to the desired position, and to form the desired orientation and patterns. After that, a digital mask image is used to cure particles in photopolymer with desired distribution patterns. The magnetic-field-assisted projection stereolithography (M-PSL) manufacturing process planning, testbed and materials are discussed. Three test cases, an impeller, a two-wheel roller and a flexible film, were performed to verify and validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed process. They were successfully fabricated and remote controls of the printed samples were demonstrated, showing the capability of printed smart polymer composites on performing desired functions.
TOPICS: Smart structures, Additive manufacturing, Mask image projection stereolithography, Polymer composites, Parallel strand lumber, Particulate matter, Magnetic fields, Manufacturing, Impellers, Photopolymers, Nozzles, Polymers, Robotics, Magnetic particles, Rollers, Wheels, Biomedicine
Technical Brief  
Markus Weiss, Fritz Klocke, Sebastian Barth, Matthias Rasim and Patrick Mattfeld
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035531
In this paper, an innovative approach for the description of the functional properties of a grinding wheel surface is discussed. First, the state of the art in the description of grinding wheel topographies is summarized. Furthermore, the fundamentals for a new approach for the quantitative description of grinding wheel topographies are provided. In order to analyze the functional properties of a grinding wheel's topography depending on its specification, grinding experiments were carried out. For the experimental investigations both vitrified and synthetic resin bonded grinding wheels with varied compositions were analyzed. During the experiments, the topographies of the investigated grinding wheel surfaces have been analyzed in detail. The developed software tool allows for a detailed description of the kinematic cutting edges depending on the grinding process parameters and the grinding wheel. In addition to the calculation of the number of kinematic cutting edges and the area per cutting edge a differentiation of the cutting edge areas in normal and tangential areas of the grinding wheel's circumferential direction is implemented. This enables a detailed analysis and a quantitative comparison of grinding wheel topographies related to different grinding wheel specifications. In addition, the influence of the dressing process and wear conditions can be evaluated. The new approach allows a better characterization of the contact conditions between grinding wheel and workpiece. Hence, the impact of a specific topography on the grinding process behavior and the grinding result can be revealed.
TOPICS: Grinding wheels, Grinding, Cutting, Kinematics, Wear, Computer software, Resins
De-Lin Huang, Shi-chang Du, Gui-Long Li and Zhuo-Qi Wu
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035897
The chamber volumes are very important for some mechanical products. For instance, the volume variations of engine cylinder head combustion chambers directly affect the critical functions (e.g. compression ratio) of an engine. The interior surfaces of the chambers are usually not being machined after casting processes due to high machining cost. Traditional titration methods are only applied off line to evaluate the variations of the chamber volumes since they are considerably time-consuming. Therefore, it is difficult to on line control the volume variations of multiple chambers in machining processes. With the development of new high definition metrology (HDM) technologies, millions of coordinate points of the interior surfaces of the chambers can be on line obtained, and thus great opportunities are provided for on-line controlling volume variations of multiple chambers of a workpiece. However, there are some critical problems urgently need to be solved, such as datum transformation of high-density points, precise volume calculation of multiple chambers, and minimizing the volume difference of any two ones of all chambers. This paper presents a novel systemic approach for on-line minimizing the volume difference of multiple chambers of a workpiece based on HDM. A model for obtaining an optimized machining parameter for depth of chambers is explored to minimize the volume difference of any two ones of all chambers. The results of a case study show that the proposed approach can minimize the volume difference of four combustion chambers of a cylinder head in machining processes.
TOPICS: Machining, Casting, Metrology, Combustion chambers, Density, Engines, Compression, Cylinders, Engine cylinders, Mechanical products
Gustavo Tapia, Luke Johnson, Brian Franco, Kubra Karayagiz, Ji Ma, Raymundo Arroyave, Ibrahim Karaman and Alaa Elwany
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035898
Abstract Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is an emerging field that focuses on characterizing, quantifying, and potentially reducing, the uncertainties associated with computer simulation models used in a wide range of applications. Although it has been successfully applied to computer simulation models in areas such as structural engineering, climate forecasting and medical sciences, this powerful research area is still lagging behind in multi-scale materials simulation models. These are broadly defined as physics-based predictive models developed to predict material behavior - i.e., processing-structure-property relations -, and have recently received considerable interest with the advent of emerging concepts such as Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME). The need of effective tools for quantifying the uncertainties associated with multi-scale materials simulation models has been identified as a high priority research area in most recent roadmapping efforts in the field. Abstract In this paper, we present one of the first efforts in conducting systematic UQ of a physics-based materials simulation model used for predicting the evolution of precipitates in advanced nickel-titanium Shape-Memory Alloys subject to heat treatment. Specifically, a Bayesian calibration approach is used to conduct calibration of the precipitation model using a synthesis of experimental and computer simulation data. We focus on constructing a Gaussian Process-based surrogate modeling approach for achieving this task, and then benchmark the predictive accuracy of the calibrated model with that of the model calibrated using traditional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods.
TOPICS: Physics, Nickel, Shape memory alloys, Calibration, Precipitation, Titanium, Uncertainty, Simulation models, Computer simulation, Climate, Uncertainty quantification, Biomedicine, Heat treating (Metalworking), Chain, Modeling, Structural engineering, Materials science
Fangyan Zheng, Lin Hua, Xinghui Han, Bo Li and Ding-fang Chen
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035794
Gear shaping, commonly regarded as the most widely used machining method for cylindrical gear, is in fact an ideal manufacturing method for noncircular gear with helix or straight tooth lengthwise, due to its merit of not being restricted by gear type or pitch curve in contrast to gear hobbing. However, concerning researches are mainly focused on the generation of noncircular straight external gear, paying rare attention to noncircular internal gear and noncircular helix gear. Considering that, through using a 3-linkage CNC shaping machine, this paper aims to synthesize the theory and practice of noncircular gear shaping in general, covering external gear, internal gear, gear with straight tooth lengthwise as well as gear with helix tooth lengthwise. This paper first establishes the generating mathematical model in theory; then deduces the linkage shaping relations in a 3-linkage CNC shaping machine; later describes the manufacturing process in practice; and finally, practically shapes three noncircular gears with different gear type and tooth lengthwise, validating both the correctness of the proposed shaping model and the appropriateness of the manufacturing process.
TOPICS: Machinery, Linkages, Gears, Computer numerical control machine tools, Manufacturing, Shapes, Machining
Hang Ye, Chi Zhou and Wenyao Xu
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035795
The hybrid Stereolithography (SLA) process integrates the laser scanning based SLA system and the mask projection based SLA system. Multiple laser paths are used to scan the border of a 2D pattern, whereas a mask image is adopted to solidify the interior area. By integrating the merits of two subsystems, the hybrid SLA process can achieve high surface quality without sacrificing the productivity. For the hybrid system, closed polygonal contours are required to direct the laser scanning, and a binary image is also needed for the mask projection. We proposed a novel image-based slicing method. This approach can convert a 3D model into a series of binary images directly, and each image is corresponding to the cross-section of the model at a specific height. Based on the resultant binary image, we use the image processing method to gradually shrink the pattern in the image. The boundaries of the shrunk image are traced and then restored as polygons to direct the laser spot movement. The final shrunk image will serve as the input for the mask projection. The experimental results of several test cases demonstrate that the proposed method is substantially more efficient than the traditional approach. Its accuracy is also studied and discussed.
TOPICS: Stereolithography, Path planning, Additive manufacturing, Lasers, Surface quality, Three-dimensional models, Image processing
Xiaobing Dang, Kai He, Wei Li, Qiyang Zuo and Ruxu Du
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035796
Bending 3D free form metal plates is a common process used in many heavy industries such as shipbuilding. The traditional method is the so-called line heating method, which is not only labor intensive but also inefficient and error-prone. This paper presents a new incremental bending method based on minimum energy principle and model-less control method. First, the sheet metal is discretized into a number of strips connected through virtual springs. Next, by applying minimum energy principle, the punching and supporting points are calculated for each strip. Then, the bended shape of the strip is computed based on the beam bending theory. This process is continued until the final shape is reached. To compensate the bending error, the computer vision based model-less control is applied. The computer vision detects the bending error based on which additional bending steps are calculated. The new method is tested in a custom build incremental bending machine. Different metal plates are formed. For a metal plate of 1000 × 800 × 5mm, the average bending error is less than 3mm. In comparison to the existing methods, the new method has a number of advantages, including simple, fast and highly energy efficient.
TOPICS: Sheet metal, Errors, Metals, Strips, Shapes, Plates (structures), Computers, Springs, Machinery, Shipbuilding, Punching (Metalworking), Heating
Lin Xue and Hiromasa Suzuki
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035676
Many types of artefacts appear in X-ray computed tomography (CT) volume data, which influence measurement quality of industrial cone beam X-ray CT. Most of those artefacts are associated to CT scanning parameters, therefore a good scanning parameters setting can weaken the influence to improve measurement accuracy. This paper presents a simulation method for evaluating CT scanning parameters for dimensional metrology. The method can aid CT metrology to achieve a high measurement accuracy. In the method image entropy is used as a criterion to evaluate the quality of CT volume data. For entropy calculation of CT volume data, a detailed description about bin width and entropy zone is given. The relationship between entropy values of CT volume data and error parameters of CT metrology is shown and discussed. By use of this method, mainly we focus on specimen orientation evaluation, and some other typical scanning parameters are used to evaluate the proposed method. Two typical specimens are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method.
TOPICS: Metrology, Entropy, Computerized tomography, Accuracy and precision, Simulation, Errors, Dimensional metrology
Hongyue Sun, Kan Wang, Yifu Li, Chuck Zhang and Ran Jin
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035586
Aerosol jet printing (AJP) is a direct write technology that enables fabrication of flexible, fine scale printed electronics on conformal substrates. AJP does not require the time consuming mask and postpatterning processes compared with traditional electronics manufacturing techniques. Thus, the cycle time can be dramatically reduced, and highly personalized designs of electronics can be realized. AJP has been successfully applied to a variety of industries, with different combinations of inks and substrates. However, the quality of the printed electronics, such as resistance, is not able to be measured online. On the other hand, the microscopic image sensors are widely used for printed circuit boards (PCBs) quality quantification and inspection. In this paper, two widely used quality variables of printed electronics, resistance and overspray, will be jointly modeled based on microscopic images for fast quality assessment. Augmented quantitative and qualitative (AUGQQ) models are proposed to use features of microscopic images taken at different locations on the printed electronics as input variables, and resistance and overspray as output variables. The association of resistance and overspray can be investigated through the AUGQQ models formulation. A case study for fabricating silver lines with Optomec® aerosol jet system is used to evaluate the model performance. The proposed AUGQQ models can help assess the printed electronics quality and identify important image features in a timely manner.
TOPICS: Aerosols, Modeling, Printing, Electronics, Manufacturing, Inks, Silver, Sensors, Inspection, Printed circuit boards, Cycles
Lu Xiaohong, Jia Zhenyuan, Zhang Haixing, Liu Shengqian, Feng Yixuan and Steven Y. Liang
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035491
In the micro-milling process, cutting thickness always changes dynamically, which may cause chatter. The key to good surface quality is the minimization of tool chatter. This requires an understanding of the milling tool and the milling structure system dynamics. Frequency response function (FRF) at micro-milling tool point reflects dynamic behavior of the whole micro-milling machine-spindle-tool system. In this paper, based on receptance coupling substructure analysis(RCSA) and considering rotational degrees of freedom, tool point frequency response function of micro-milling dynamic system are obtained by coupling two kinds of functions calculated by Timoshenko's beam theory and Euler's beam theory and obtained by hammer testing. And frequency response functions solved by different beam theories are compared. Finally, the frequency response function is identified as the modal parameters, and the modal parameters are transformed into equivalent structural parameters of the physical system. The research work provides base for the dynamic study of the micro-milling system.
TOPICS: Frequency response, Micromilling, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Milling, Chatter, Cutting, Surface quality, Machinery, System dynamics, Hammers, Degrees of freedom, Dynamic systems, Testing
Rianne E. Laureijs, Jaime Bonnín Roca, Sneha Prabha Narra, Colt Montgomery, Jack L. Beuth and Erica R.H. Fuchs
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4035420
Additive manufacturing is increasingly of interest for commercial and military applications due to its potential to create novel geometries with increased performance. For additive manufacturing to find commercial application, it will have to be cost competitive against traditional processes such as forging. Forecasting the production costs of future products prior to large-scale investment is challenging due to the limits of traditional cost accounting's ability to handle the systemic process implications of new technologies and cognitive biases in humans' additive and systemic estimates. Leveraging a method uniquely suited to these challenges, we quantify the production and use economics of an additively-manufactured versus a traditionally forged GE engine bracket for commercial aviation with equivalent performance. Our results show that, despite the simplicity of the engine bracket, when taking into account part redesign for AM and the associated lifetime fuel savings of the additively-designed bracket, the additively manufactured part and design is cheaper than the forged one for a wide range of scenarios, including at higher volumes of 2,000 to 12,000 brackets per year. Opportunities to further reduce costs include cheaper material prices without compromising quality, being able to produce vertical builds with equivalent performance to horizontal builds, and increasing process control so as to enable reduced testing. Given the conservative nature of our assumptions as well as our choice of part, these results suggest there may be broader economic viability for additively manufactured parts, especially when systemic factors and use costs are incorporated.
TOPICS: Metals, Additive manufacturing, Engines, Forging, Design, Economics , Testing, Defense industry, Commercial air transport, Process control, Fuels

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