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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Nanomachining of Silicon Surface Using Atomic Force Microscope With Diamond Tip

[+] Author and Article Information
Noritaka Kawasegi1

Graduate School of Science and Engineering,  University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555, Japankawasegi@eng.toyama-u.ac.jp

Noboru Takano

Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering,  University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555, Japantakano@eng.toyama-u.ac.jp

Daisuke Oka

Graduate School of Science and Engineering,  University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555, Japanm042062@ems.toyama-u.ac.jp

Noboru Morita

Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering,  University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555, Japannmorita@eng.toyama-u.ac.jp

Shigeru Yamada

Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering,  University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555, Japansyamada@eng.toyama-u.ac.jp

Kazutaka Kanda

 Nachi-Fujikoshi Corporation, 1-1-1 Fujikoshi-honmachi, Toyama 930-8511, Japank-kanda@nachi-fujikoshi.co.jp

Shigeto Takano

 Nachi-Fujikoshi Corporation, 1-1-1 Fujikoshi-honmachi, Toyama 930-8511, Japans-taka@nachi-fujikoshi.co.jp

Tsutomu Obata

 Toyama Industrial Technology Center, 150 Futagami, Takaoka, Toyama 933-0981, Japanobata@itc.pref.toyama.jp

Kiwamu Ashida

Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute,  National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564, Japanashida.k@aist.go.jp

1

To whom correspondence should be addressed.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 128(3), 723-729 (Nov 23, 2005) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2163364 History: Received March 02, 2005; Revised November 23, 2005

This paper investigates nanomachining of single-crystal silicon using an atomic force microscope with a diamond-tip cantilever. To enable nanomachining of silicon, a nanomachining cantilever with a pyramidal diamond tip was developed using a combination of photolithography and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition. Nanomachining experiments on silicon using the cantilever are demonstrated under various machining parameters. The silicon surface can be removed with a rate of several tens to hundreds of nanometers in ductile mode, and the cantilever shows superior wear resistance. The experiments demonstrate successful nanomachining of single-crystal silicon.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Fabrication process of the diamond-tip cantilever based on photolithography and HF-CVD: (a) patterning of silicon dioxide using photolithography, (b) fabrication of silicon mold by anisotropic wet chemical etching of silicon, (c) removal of oxide pattern by etching in buffed HF solution, (d) deposition of diamond layer on the silicon mold by HF-CVD process, (e) mechanical polishing of the diamond layer, and (f) etching of silicon mold, and bonding of diamond tip on silicon lever

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Figure 2

SEM image of a diamond-tip cantilever for nanomachining: (a) overview, (b) enlarged image, and (c) side view of diamond tip

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Figure 3

Schematic diagram of experimental method: (a) experimental setup based on AFM, (b) machining method using the cantilever, and (c) tilt angle of the cantilever

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Figure 4

Machined area prepared utilizing a cantilever with pyramidal diamond tip: (a) AFM topography image of silicon surface after machining a single line at a normal load of 80μN, (b) AFM topography image of machined area (15×7.5μm2 area) prepared at a normal load of 397μN and a scanning pitch of 59nm. All images were recorded at a scan rate of 1Hz, using a conventional Si3N4 AFM cantilever for measurement.

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Figure 5

Schematic diagram showing the mechanism of increasing depth

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Figure 6

Change in depth of machined area plotted as a function of normal load

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Figure 7

Change in depth of machined area plotted as a function of machining velocity

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Figure 8

Change in depth of machined area plotted as a function of scanning pitch

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Figure 9

Change in depth of machined area plotted as a function of number of times machined

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Figure 10

SEM image of the machined area (30×15μm2 area) prepared at a normal load of 636μN and a scanning pitch of 117nm

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Figure 11

SEM image of pyramidal diamond tip after machining a silicon substrate

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Figure 12

Depth change of machined area plotted as a function of machining distance

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Figure 13

Enlarged AFM topography images and cross-sectional trace of machined area at a machining distance of (a) 3.8mm and (b) 1540mm. All images were recorded at a scan rate of 1Hz using a conventional Si3N4 AFM cantilever.

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Figure 14

Enlarged SEM image of the machined silicon surface at machining distance of 3.8mm. The silicon surface is machined at a normal load of 610μN and a scanning pitch of 59nm.

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Figure 15

Change in surface roughness of machined area plotted as a function of machining distance

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Figure 16

SEM image of typical chip shape at various machining distances: (a) chip shape at onset of machining process and (b) chip shape at machining distance of 1535mm

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